Monday, March 13, 2006

Baffled by Bumps

Has ski history kept you from mastering moguls?

[Re-posted from October '05]
You’re a fit expert skier, but you’re yet to master the bumps. Over and over, you’ve watched those mogul skiers who glide so fluidly, so effortlessly through the bumps. But when you jump into the zipper line, it spits you out after just a few turns. So, what is it about mogul skiing? It can’t be all that difficult, can it?

Actually, mogul skiing is not so much difficult as it different. That is, different from groomed-trail skiing. The bumps require a special set of techniques that are not widely known outside of competitive mogul-skiing circles. And why are mogul techniques not widely known among members of the skiing mainstream? History, my friend. Ski history.

With your mogul floundering, you’re paying for, among other things, a mistake made more than 30 years ago by the now revered American racing coach and ski-instruction author Warren Witherell. In 1972, Witherell’s book, How the Racers Ski, gave the downhill skiing masses their first comprehensive, understandable explanation of modern racing technique: in particular, the carved turn. The book influenced skiers everywhere. Its message permeated ski coaching and instruction, and helped to improve the skills of countless racers, instructors and recreational skiers. But the book claimed to be more than it was. It claimed to offer no less than “the fundamentals common to all great skiers.” In fact, it offered only the fundamentals common to all great groomed-trail skiers.

Venture away from the smooth, groomed snow, to the bumpy side of the mountain, and the value of racing technique suddenly disappears. Real carving isn’t even physically possible in a tight mogul fall line. The purely carved turn isn’t fast enough for the bumps. It’s also too wide for the bumps, and it requires more ski-to-snow contact than the bumps afford. Also, the racer’s crouched posture and relatively wide stance don’t allow for the rhythmic and coordinated absorption and extension movements necessary in the bumps. In other words, in the moguls, racing technique will get you into trouble. Yes, I know, a few of the more athletic racers out there can ski soft, forgiving moguls with a bit of speed. But have you seen many racers who can ski big, irregular, icy bumps with quickness, smoothness and efficiency, while staying in the fall line all the way down a steep hill? A good mogul skier can do it all day long.

When Witherell described alpine-racing techniques as “the fundamentals common to all great skiers,” nearly everyone believed him. Race coaches believed him. The instructing establishment believed him. Recreational experts believed him. And nearly everyone still believes him to this day. Most skiers, including many instructors, believe that carving and all of the techniques that surround carving are the only legitimate downhill skiing techniques there are. Listen to the advice and instruction that’s commonly passed around by the expert masses these days and you’d think that mogul techniques don’t even exist! Instructors and other groomed-trail experts are constantly suggesting that the narrow, legs-together stance is outdated and incorrect, and that a carved turn is, in all circumstances, superior to a more heavily steered turn.

Although most ski schools do offer mogul skiing lessons, you’d be hard pressed to find, at a traditional ski school, an instructor who knows why the narrow, legs-together stance is technically advantageous in the bumps, or why heavy steering can actually be an efficient means of turning in the bumps. You’d be hard pressed to find an instructor who can explain the crucial importance of absorption and extension in the bumps, or who can ski the zipper line with the speed, smoothness, efficiency and control of a real bump skier. Just as difficult would be finding an instructor who doesn’t traffic in one or more of the common mogul-skiing myths (e.g. fall-line bump skiing is an "extreme" sport meant for daredevils only; mogul skiers aren’t good technical skiers; of the several different ways there are to ski the bumps, none is any better than any other; et cetera).

Today’s mogul myths are no different from other myths that have cropped up throughout ski history only to be eventually disproved and disregarded. The Norwegians used to say that skiing steep, alpine slopes was impossible. After alpine techniques were successfully developed, the common myth said that alpine skiing wasn’t safe enough for the recreating masses. (Daredevils only, they said. Sound familiar?) Hannes Schneider then disabused his contemporaries of this ski myth by developing a safe way to teach nearly anyone to ski downhill. Likewise, today’s mogul myths will pass and the expert-skiing masses will learn to ski bumps, once people gain access to real mogul technique.

At heart, perhaps, we North Americans are still just sappy colonials, endlessly impressed by things European. Alpine racing is, after all, alpine; it comes from the Alps, from Europe, and is done best by Europeans. Yes, yes, I know; every 20 or so years, a Mahre or Street or Miller comes along to produce a blip on the world’s alpine-racing radar. But, let’s face it; alpine racing has been pretty much dominated by Europeans, and we colonials have always been endlessly impressed. “Oh, my!” our skiing mainstream said to itself back in 1972, “Mr. Witherell says the alpine racers all carve their turns. We must all do as the great alpine racers do! You’re no good if you don’t carve like the great alpinists!” And our skiing mainstream has since all but ignored the downhill-skiing techniques that we colonials have pioneered: mogul techniques.

Over the last 20 or so years, America’s kneeling at the racing-technique altar has become an exceptional irony. While the U.S. has produced just a few great alpine racers over the years, we’ve produced many great mogul skiers and we pretty much dominate World Cup mogul skiing today. To put it another way: mogul skiing is the sort of downhill skiing that American competitors do best and that American competitors often do better than anyone else in the world.

On the World Cup bump circuit, it’s not uncommon for the top ten finishers of a contest to include five or more Americans. America has so many good mogul skiers that it’s also possible for an almost completely different set of five American mogul skiers to finish in the top ten a few weeks later. America has enough great mogul skiers to field two or three viable World Cup teams. The American mogul competitor’s biggest challenge often isn’t competing against skiers from other nations, but, rather, earning a spot on the U.S. team. Yet, the average American skier is unaware of America’s mogul skiing prowess, and unaware of authentic mogul technique.

Moguls crop up everywhere we ski, and everyone wants to know what to do with them. (A recent SKI Magazine poll says 34% of skiers want to improve their bump technique more than any other aspect of their skiing.) But ski history has led our instructors and recreating masses to a narrow definition of skiing excellence, a definition built almost solely on racing technique. And so the average expert stumbles through the bumps, trying to apply racing technique where mogul technique is needed. Perhaps, however, the future will allow our instructors and skiing masses to turn away, for a moment, from How the Racers Ski, and to learn something about how the mogul skiers ski. It would only make for better, more versatile skiers. And then, maybe, your local ski school could teach you to ski that zipper line like the bumpers ski it.

[Buy Dan's book, Everything the Instructors Never Told You about Mogul Skiing, at,,, or ask for it at your local bookstore.]


Blogger jsul185 said...

Here, here I agree. Waterville Valley NH put in a machine made bump line on one top to bottom trail. People were on it all day long. My buddies and I were trying to slip it at the end of the day and skiers were "trying" to ski it.
It was great, skiers love bumps.

It's too bad ski patrollers and ski instructors don't take the time to learn how to ski bumps. I believe their ignorance and egos are the reason ski resort general managers don't see the customers desire to ski bumps.

10:04 PM  
Blogger Dan DiPiro said...

Thanks for the comment, jsul185.
I'm off to Lake Placid, this afternoon, for the EQS Mogul Championships. Team and coaches will stay in the Olympic Training Center, which I'll enjoy checking out. Training on Friday, and the competition on Saturday. Should be fun. Enjoy your week.
-Dan D.

9:15 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

On Ebay a few cheap mogul skis keep coming up. What are your thoughts about: the K2 Mamba, probably a 2000/01 (white with and MB near the tail); the Dyastar Assault, 2001-ish (mostly red with some grey); the Fischer Lunar, 2002 (yellow and white); the K2 Outlaw, with a gunslinger on the top sheet; and the Volkl Straight Line, 2001 (black and yellow). I am 6'1" and 190 lb; all these skis are about 185cm.

Also, the Line Assassin claims to be able to "cut through the bumps like a walk in the park". With a 112/75/101 shape is that just marketing?

7:33 PM  
Blogger Dan DiPiro said...


The old Mambas, Assaults, Outlaws and Volkl Straight Lines are all good in bumps, but they're very straight and not so versatile. Not as much fun on the rest of the mountain as newer mogul skis can be with their slightly more dramatic shapes.

Steer clear of those old Lunars. They've since been redesigned, but those old ones would be too soft and squirrely, particularly for a guy of your size.

I don't know about the Lines. They do seem too shaped for the bumps, but manufacturers are figuring out how to bring more and more shape into the moguls.

Good luck, Chris.

-Dan DiPiro

8:13 AM  
Blogger jsul185 said...

I'm going to make a day trip Friday to Killington with Joegm and a few others. Hopefully burn some turns on OL and then watch the real skiers. Hope to see you there.

2:02 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Thanks for you opinion about the skis. I used to ski White Heat, Sunday River back in the mid-90's when I lived in Boston. Now I am in Spokane, WA where we have a fairly good, not fabulous, bump run at Mt. Spokane. I have very fond memories of White Heat in the spring in the sun and soft snow!

1:03 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Dan, sorry to bug you, but when it comes to bindings do I need anything special? I am trying to put a low cost mogul specific ski in my quiver so if I can put a mid-price binding on the ski it will keep the overal cost down. What is the minimum DIN range and what, if any, special features should I look for in an older model unused binding?
Thanks again!

1:19 AM  
Blogger Dan DiPiro said...

I was planning to be at Killington for the mogul event on Friday, but a work obligation presented itself (my free-lance writing business) and now I can't make it. Really sorry to be missing it. Hope it's a good day for you and the crew.
-Dan DiPiro

6:38 AM  
Blogger Dan DiPiro said...


I took a run down White Heat for you on March 11th (after our EQS mogul contest on Tempest) and it was flat and icy. So, if your Spokane run has decent bumps this season, you're in the right place! The northeast has had a rotten season, as you probably know.

About bindings... get a binding with minimal lift. And, at your size and apparent ability level (White Heat history, etc.), you should go for a 14-DIN binding, if you can. 12 might do it, but 10 would almost certainly be not enough.

Your next purchase, though, should be my book! ...which includes a whole chapter on mogul-skiing equipment!

Best regards,
Dan DiPiro

6:46 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Thanks for all the advise; sad to hear about White Heat, it's a great run when its tuned up.

I have your book and am using it, my shopping just needed a little coaching with the specifics of my budget, size etc.

Would I be happy with a pair of dragonslayer 170s or is that too small?

The book has helped me fine tune the details of my turns. My turns have evolved over years by means of eureka moments--when my body does something I realize is efficent, then duplicating it--without coaching, which can be a long and lonely road. The book has put names to those habits and introduced me to things I hadn't yet discovered.


3:42 PM  
Blogger Dan DiPiro said...


At 6'1", and your White-Heat ability level, you'd probably find the 170s too short. 180s would almost certainly suit you better.

Thanks for buying a copy of my book. Pleased to hear you're finding it useful, and I'm glad to provide the additional equipment advice.

-Dan DiPiro

4:03 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Nice description of bump skiing.

You might like to know that the CSIA added basic bump skiing to the Level 2 course a few years back, and dynamic bump skiing & teaching have been key parts of the Level 3 exams for as long as I can remember.

Many CSCF coaches also include bump skiing as a regular training component of race programs, especially at the entry and development levels (kids from 9-14).

6:44 PM  
Blogger Dan DiPiro said...

Thanks for posting the comment, Anonymous. I'm wondering... what do you mean by "basic bump skiing" and "dynamic bump skiing & teaching."

Lots of instructors teach bump skiing, and plenty of coaches encourage their racers to jump into the bumps now and again. But with what techniques do these instructors and coaches approach the bumps?

-Dan DiPiro

5:57 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

What ever happened to Jack Taylor, the famous mogul skier of the 70s? I used to ski St. Mary's glacier in the summer and would see him making practice runs from sunrise to sunset.

8:45 PM  
Blogger Dan DiPiro said...

Hey Anonymous,
Welcome to my blog. I know of a few '70s freestylers who're still kickin' around New England. But I'm afraid I don't know Jack Taylor. A Colorado guy? You still ski in the west?

8:09 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Different anonymous here, but I was doing a search for Jack Taylor and found this blog -- also wondering whatever happpened to him.

I worked and skied with his room mate (Doug Mueller) back in 77-78 in Steamboat. Had the pleasure of skiing with Little Jack a handful of times that year, as well. One of the very best skiers I have ever seen. Short, fit, strong and as smooth coming out of the air in bumps as if he had never left the ground. You would never forget watching him ski -- extremely fast, but in such control and so smooth that he never looked like he was going as fast as he was straight down the fall line. He skied on and for Scott, The Ski and Spademan. 5 years running: IFSA and PFA bump champion, if I recall correctly. Grew up as a racer in Maine, I believe.

I heard somewhere that he got into three pin racing gates, and then the last I saw of him was on a freestyle legends TV broadcast in 93-94, skiing bumps against some old hot dog names. He didnt look like hed been skiing in some time -- not the unbeatable Jack Taylor I was used to seeing. I think the announcer said he was living in Florida and was a lobster fisherman in the NE during the season.

Great guy -- I remember him being really humble and something of a partier. I had the great fortune of being about 10 yards away while he gave his girlfriend a lesson on how he down-unweights while turning over the top of a bump while turning (pole position being everything, with a good demonstration of downhill ski knee drive and the extreme to which he might drop his butt) on Hurricane or Twister at Steamboat. That insight on his technique was never lost on me after that.

Im in the Sierra foothills now, spent many years in Tahoe -- an old fart still skiing bumps, and remembering what it was like skiing with those guys -- when Doug would look down BC Liftline and say "lets blow the touristas away" with an impish grin -- before hitting a 720 off the catwalk.


11:31 AM  
Blogger OracleAtDelphi said...

I spent last year trying to turn my EKG line into a zipper line in icy, irregular and steep bumps. I bought some Rossi Vipers for the challenge and made "some" headway. But I plateaued fast without instruction (live or written). Last month I read the bumps chapter in R. Mark Elling's The All-Mountain Skier I'm happy to see that it agrees with much of what Dan DiPiro states. This year I'm going to hit the bumps with intelligence, subbing all that carving/crouching I was doing last year with steering/taller stance. Great blog, Dan.

9:49 PM  
Blogger Big Jack said...

I have just discovered this blog so this is my first offering. Little Jack Taylor was my best friend. Please bear with me for I have terrible news...Little Jack died on sunday April 13th when trying to land his dingy on shore during rough seas. I don't feel good relaying this info in this manner. Sorry. Big Jack

1:22 PM  
Blogger George said...

Blackjack: Yikes Dan, Jack Taylor was THE World Moguls Champion on the Midas Tour when Freestyle was at it's zenith in 75,76,77. I would do a little homework. The lobster fisherman from Maine set the standard for every mogul skier on the planet before TV jumps came along. Jack Taylor IS a Freestyle icon and will not be forgotten...

7:39 PM  
Blogger Dan DiPiro said...

Ha! You got me there, George...a gap in my historical knowledge of freestyle skiing. In my defense, though, I have to say that I was ten in 1975.

I'd also have to argue that the Midas Muffler Tour was not the "zenith" of freestyle skiing, but, rather, its humble, localized, and rough-hewn American beginnings. The judging criteria for a good competitive mogul run back in the 70s were problematic--sometimes rewarding recklessness, losses of control, and spectacular recoveries more than good skiing. Today, mogul skiing and aerials are World Cup and Olympic sports, and they are practiced by athletes all over the globe. I think it's clear that freestyle is at much more of a "zenith" today than it was thirty to thirty-five years ago.

And by the way, "TV jumps" and machine-made courses didn't come into mogul skiing until the early 90s; I would argue that the highest standards for great mogul skiing were set by the skiers of the 80s, in natural, skier-made moguls, after modern judging criteria and rules were put in place and the recklessness of 70s hotdogging was behind us. Steve Desovich, Nelson Carmichael, and Cooper Schell (to name a few Americans) come to mind. Desovich is now coaching in Australia; he coached Dale Begg-Smith to gold in the Turin Olympics in 2006.

All of which is not to say that Jack Taylor was not one of the great forefathers of freestyle skiing. It sounds like he was that.
Thanks for writing, George.


8:14 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Jack Taylor died this week in Florida in the ocean.
The Midas tour was more than a 'local' tour. To date, it is the most prize money ever awarded.
The top skiers of the time were competed. Our judging manual has hardly changed since those events.

Bob C. 'the judge'

5:57 PM  
Blogger Dan DiPiro said...

Nice to hear from you, Bob C.

I'm glad that Jack Taylor and other pioneers did what it took to free us all from the slalom gates! May their legacy continue to flourish!


10:16 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

As a former Colorado Pro Mogul Tour boy back in the late 80's, I can say I was "hooked" on the sport immediately after seeing two people: Jack Taylor and Chris Thorne - rippin' those school-bus-sized mogul lines somewhere around 1978. Yep, the Midas muffler scarves blowin', Scott boots squeaking, Spademans way, way over-torqued, and left-right sides of The Ski over-flexing in those 15' troughs was MY crack-cocaine of the day! But, the term hot-dog skiing was still being thrown around. Sort of a not-so-serious name tag on most of the athletes even though most could do some pretty amazing things...and had balls bigger than life. And the judging criteria was also "hot dog." But it was the 80's - 90's bump-boys (and girls) that laid the technical foundation as we know it today. Though prize money wasn't great back then, the sport earned it's seriousness and respect, even from the racing community. That's the key. Today's athletes and judging are simply a continuance of that 80's - 90's stage. And ever since the sport's inception, my hat's off to ALL of my friends - old hot-doggers and old-school bumpers alike - hey, we did it with 200cm, 204cm, 207cm and more! Now THAT'S cool. And for those young guys doing it new-school now: Way to go. Your "air" is sick. It's weird. I can't even figure out how you came up with some of those tricks? The last time I did a D-spin-noodle-720-biscuit-dinner roll was when I was hit by a city bus in my Armani. But please keep doing it. Keep pushing the envelope of the sport. You guy's are truly gifted. Just remember, you learned that tight, direct fall-line technique from us old-schoolers!! -Greg

4:01 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

For the Steamboat obit on little Jack Taylor, go to:


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Blogger Tom said...

Hello - A forty something year old guy in good shape skiing for almost 20 years - good groomer turns - painful in the bumps. Avoid them like the plague. Purchased Dan's book. I think it is dead on - mogul skiing is not about making a better "groomed turn" - It is totally different. Much the same way Lito -Flores back in the 90's ( Breakthrough on Skis ) pointed out that an expert carved turn is not simply an intermediate turn done better- it is totally different. Two - Questions - Is the purchase of a mogul specific ski worth the bucks or can I learn to do this on all Mtn Skis - Volkl AC30. Second, Anybody know a mountain in New England with a good bump clinic? Instuctor? I haven't gotten it with traditional Ski Schools. Tired of being baffled. Usually Ski at Sunapee.

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Anonymous Anonymous said...

You forgot about the Quebec domination of moguls competition. Maybe you should have said Nor-AM!
Hang around with some of Canadas' best instructors (CSIA) or Americas and the (PSIA) and get schooled on good solid ski technique and high end athletics! Moguls are bumps in the snow,it all depends on your speed and level of intencity. here in B.C. we have big bumps all year and teach bump or mogul skiing all the time. It shows at the World Cup and olympic level that Instructors and coaches have been (where did all these athletes get their skills base from?) teaching "real" mogul technique for years.With exception of big aerial tricks. Come to B.C. we'll show you how to rip moguls. Paul.B

3:16 PM  
Blogger Roy D. Slater said...

I have the same question as Tom, I've been looking at some volkl ac30's but I want to try and learn to do moguls on them. Will they work for that, or will I have to find something else?

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